Surgery is one of the medical domains with high physical and mental demands and involves a series or risks for the surgeon. This is all the more important that surgery, including orthopedics, is developing and strives to change the operating techniques to minimally invasive what increases the negative impact on the health, comfort and quality of life of surgeons. The physical and cognitive essentials during surgery pose substantial ergonomic stress. The intraoperative surgical workplace is affected by stressing environmental factors and, additionally, surgeons have to perform high-force as well as high-precision tasks in combination with multimodal information processing. This leads to increased stress and strain, resulting in muscle overload, fatigue of surgeons and higher risk for human error and for inefficiencies in operations, causing that surgeons suffer from severe musculoskeletal disorders with progressing working life. Another factor affecting working conditions and surgeons’ effectiveness is workflow and surgical team cooperation. Taking these all aspects into consideration, the recommended solution is to redesign surgical processes in order to improve efficiency, safety, and comfort for the operating team, while reducing physical strains on surgeons.